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Galvanizing process
A, overview
Galvanized wire widely used in our country, for example: architecture, communication, national defense and civilian and cotton areas (package), railway transportation, industrial and agricultural production is to use it, many types of galvanized steel wire for China's exports, so the galvanized iron wire is a long-term investment products, is a less effective fast industry.
China's vast number of workers in the long-term galvanizing industry struggle and struggle, constantly upgrading, from the initial hydrogen zinc plating, seriously hampered the development of zinc plating process. Our company according to this situation, in order to reduce the cost of galvanized, galvanized wire market prosperity, the majority of manufacturers to reduce weight recommended by the perennial work in the first line of the old galvanized technology research make painstaking efforts of a new generation of "automatic assembly line zinc galvanizing technology".
In the automatic production line of galvanized wire also have different methods, such as: pull the wire furnace tempering, and then rinse with water, and then stained with acid, alkali, wire galvanized, thus causing a lot of waste of time, but also caused environmental pollution (big furnace smoke), from the cost of a ton of a ton of silk coal, resulting in high labor intensity, low production cost, manufacturers increased, so that the loss of business profits, can only maintain the wages of the workers.
We summarize the experience according to the law of the industry, galvanized iron wire, exploration and practice, successfully mastered the use of a whole process of electric short annealing galvanized wire, we use the same iron ribbon three voltage, do not interfere with each other to complete their respective mission, this is where I have advanced in this process. Usually the manufacturers of raw material into the plant after 5-6 days, can make a product. However, it takes only 3-5 hours to produce the product in this process. From the cost point of view, with large furnace tempering technology, each ton of silk consumption to use 200 yuan or so, with our craft, each ton of wire only 100 degrees electricity, according to 6.4 yuan per degree, only 40 yuan. From the quality point of view, the large furnace annealing uneven, soft, soft, hard, hard, burning is not good, the whole furnace money scrap, and the electric heating annealing uniform, easy to grasp, will not be scrapped, guaranteed quality, and no environmental pollution. Practice has proved that the process is indeed a set of advanced and practical technology, in the process of improving quality, reduce the cost, reduce the labor intensity of workers, improve work efficiency. We believe that in the near future, the process will be better promotion and application.
B, wire drawing
Before a process of galvanized iron wire drawing, is galvanized wire semi-finished products, semi-finished products of galvanized wire quality plays an important role in 220-245 wire with sixth mould, 183-215 wire with seventh mould, 145-155 wire with eighth die, according to the properties of steel wire drawing die ratio of compression ratio, so pull eight can get accurate 1.6 mm black wire (also known as 16#), through eight steps of drawing machine pull out we can get the accurate 8#, 10#, 12#, 14#, 16#.
Black iron standard quality requirements: above shall not be pulled out of the top and the vertical and horizontal pull lines, black pits and cracks, to ensure that the wire above oxide, brightness of black iron wire, the standard can be transported to the workshop or galvanized plating, electroplating workshop can not be used.
C, electroplating
The first part is electric short circuit tempering.
Electro galvanized iron wire, we use in a wire with a variety of voltage, without mutual interference, the first voltage is the voltage of electric short tempered safety voltage by 36V-50V, through the wire electrode pressure wheel vehicle above conductive wheel and the sides of the pot and into the lead, hanging round switch on, you can see wire lead pot and suspended above the round red and annealing process, we through numerous experiments and several manufacturers of more than 1200 tons of practical application, we get the current various types of wire in the annealing (for reference).
diameter 4 3.6 2.8 2.5 2.2 1.6
11 367 231 134 125 160 91
13 404 332 217 171 165 111
15 revolutions per minute 500 385 260 198 191 126
All the above parameters, the wire distribution in the annealing voltage ammeter on the bottom of the plate can be seen in a variety of wire annealing, the minimum temperature 700-800 degrees, in the lead pot roll pole, the day is dark red, the night was red, then according to the national standard, different types of appropriate grasp. And require different types of tensile strength, Ma Ji is nine, elongation rate. These three iron wire rating of 70%, look at the operator seriously grasp. (parameter for Master)
parameter
Model
tensile strength Bending times Elongation
8# 35-50kg 11 10%
10# 35-48kg 11 12%
12#
Cotton baling silk
38-46kg 16 21%
14# 35-44kg 12 12%
16# 35-42kg 12 12%
The different types of tensile, bending, stretching, grasp, wire by wire feeding machine into 25 meters of space after natural cooling, in the sub file frame, into the water, into the electrolysis of sulfuric acid 10-20, pickling power is DC, then? The wire through the 8 m long pickling tank, with the naked eye, the wire surface obviously see iron oxide skin and wire oxide whereabouts, to remove the oxide on the surface of wire, wire shows the essence of the cotton yarn to wipe the surface of the acid solution and then rinse with water, in the end, pickling.
The second part is zinc plating
After the above process is completed, immediately into the 16 meters of zinc plating liquid, electrolytic tuck formula:
H20, 1000kg, ammonium chloride, 40kg
Zns04 800kg dextrin 0.02kg
AIS04, 40kg, saccharin, 0.03kg
Arabia gum 0.08kg sulfuric acid 0.09kg
PH 3 - 4
The main chemical equation is that:
H2SO4÷zn=znSO4+H2↑
3H2SO4÷2AI=AI2(SO4)3+3H2↑
All the above elements with good, to use the hydrometer, try whether to meet the requirements of 30 - 35 degrees between the concentration of PH and 3 - 4, if not, to be transferred to the process within the scope of the electroplating solution per square metre for current numbers, according to their own ability and plating galvanized the size of silicon by the whole flow adjust current, different types of wire current in the plating bath. The number of the following table (for reference)
Speed 11. 12. 13. PH
8# 350 380 440 2-3
10# 330 370 400 3-4
12#
Cotton baling silk
270 300 350 4-5
14# 250 280 330 3.5-5
16# 190 220 270 3.5-5
The current number of different types of speed master, through XX DC contact wire in 13-14 meters above and can be galvanized wire zinc plated, zinc wire above per square meter wire 25-35 mg, remember this completes the whole process, galvanized, XX DC electroplating.
In order to ensure the quality of zinc plated, after going into the hot water pot 80 degrees of purification, in the drying box, and then enter the coiling barrel above the take-up machine is enough 50 kilograms, such as more than 50 kg, 50 kg per a sheaf, each bundle of two, four, and 16# Sizha. Four, uniform packaging with three wire plastic film bag tightly, with mark storage.
The third part is zinc plating surface standard
The finished galvanized wire surface, with the naked eye, there shall be no wool silk, cracks and pits, spots, and pull the lines and no plating not local, not removal of zinc, galvanized wire with the naked eye in the sun, silvery white, if the above problems please refer to the table below.
  Causes Terms of settlement
Top wire The drawing itself does not turn negative filament or galvanized roll  
Crackle Raw materials are not up to standard  
Rift Too large or tensile when annealed   
Pitting The annealing electrode car does not turn the electric wheel, and the press rollers on both sides are not pressed  
Black spot Zinc in the zinc tank is short or positive and negative short circuit  
Horizontally
Stretch mark
The wire is not on the line before or after, or the wire machine does not cross the bridge  
镀 不
上 锌
Silicon rectifier does not send electricity, positive and negative reverse connection  
脱 锌 The annealing is large, the acid can not be removed, or the pH in the plating bath is too high  
A, overview
The equipment consists of power supply, electric annealing dray, lead pot, wire feeding machine, water tank, acid pickling tank, power supply, power supply, galvanized galvanized trough, hot water tank, drying box, rolling machine.
The equipment has automatic control, automatic alarm, automatic adjustment of voltage, current and other functions.
This equipment is suitable for the production of cotton packing special wire and galvanized wire for civil use.
Range of adaptation and working conditions
1 altitude is not more than 1000 meters;
2 medium temperature is not higher than +40 degrees, not less than -25 degrees centigrade;
3 air relative temperature not more than 80%;
4 contains no chemical corrosive gases and vapors;
5 gases without explosive danger;
6 without rain intrusion;
7 without conductive dust in the environment;
8 Where there is no violent shock or shock;
9 indoors;
10 installation inclination shall not exceed 5 degrees;
B, annealed power supply (model GDS-3000, 45 volts)
1、 Use power    
2、 Output maximum current   A
3、 Output maximum voltage   V
4、 Output maximum power   KW
5、 Cooling method   cold
6、 arrange mode    
7、 Outline size  
8、 Weight of this equipment    
9、 Usage method    
1 before use, first check the power supply voltage and the equipment is consistent, otherwise can not access.
2, check the transformer, meter and other parts are affected by moisture, all parts of the screws are loose, good inspection before they can be used.
3, the output poles can not be shorted, otherwise it will damage components.
4 successively on the air switch, current meter, voltage meter display, press the button, the pump, current meter, voltage meter display is working, and then press the start button, pull touch device ZJC, the working indicator, the machine can be put into operation.
In operation, the alarm occurred over voltage or current, short-circuit fault, light and sound signal, to remind the staff, the power must be cut off for inspection, replacement of fuse line failure, may continue to use, do not use non-standard fuse replacement.
10, maintenance and attention items
(1) this machine is best placed in the air circulation place, around should leave the appropriate space, in order to facilitate ventilation, heat dissipation, and easy to check at any time, if the dust should be cleared in time.
(2) the equipment shall not be used or placed in a corrosive atmosphere.
(3) the equipment shall be regularly checked and repaired according to the use of the environment, and the damaged parts shall be replaced in time.
(4) switch cooler oil, regular inspection, filling, filling.
(5) the long-term continuous use of the regulator, should regularly check the coil pressure regulator, generally about a year of time, the regulator of cooling oil pump, check the coil lead wire connection is loose, if loose wire wrap, discharge sedimentation, filtration and cooling oil.
11, circuit diagram attached
C, pickling power (model GBS-800, 4 volts)
1, use the power supply
2 、 output maximum DC power supply
3 、 output maximum direct voltage
4 、 output maximum power
5, cooling method
6, adjustment mode: manual adjustment of primary voltage transformer, so that the DC voltage from 0 to gradually increased to the rated value.
7, exterior size is long, 600mm width, 500mm high, 1000mm
8. The weight of this equipment is 150 kg
9, the use of methods
(1) check whether the supply voltage is consistent with the equipment before use
No access.
(2) check whether the rectifier, transformer, ammeter and other parts are affected by dampness, and whether the screws of each part are loose or not, and check them well before use.
(3) DC output positive and negative can not be wrong, the output poles can not be shorted, otherwise it will damage components.
(4) the voltage regulator handle must be switched to the minimum value (0 value) before starting the machine, so as to protect the silicon component from the impact voltage and the excessive current.
(5) in case of failure or fusing, the power must be cut off for inspection, line fault, replacement fuse can continue to use, and non standard fuses shall not be used.
(6) the safety grounding screw must be grounded in the lower end of the terminal board to ensure personal safety.
10, maintenance and attention items
(1) this machine is best placed in the air circulation areas, such as dust should be cleared in time.
(2) the equipment shall not be used or placed in a corrosive atmosphere.
(3) the equipment shall be regularly checked according to the use of the environment.
(4) the equipment has no balance facilities, and two units can not be connected in series and in parallel.
(5) the nominal voltage current ratings refers to a resistive load, if is capacitive load or inductive load is used to reduce the use of rated current voltage, the lower value of the size, depending on the specific load two.
11, electrical principle diagram attached
D, galvanized power supply (model)
It consists of two parts, the control cabinet and the induction voltage regulator
1 、 use power 3 phase
2 、 output maximum direct current
3 、 output maximum DC voltage
4 、 output maximum power
5 、 cooling mode is water-cooled
6, long size, 1000mm width, 750mm, YM, 1700mm
7. The weight of this equipment is 100 kg
8 、 installation and function
(1) DC equipment before installation, check all electrical components inside the cabinet is due to earthquake damage in the transportation, loose fasteners or insulation damp, if the above happens, should immediately repair, check before use.
(2) the rectifying equipment shall be installed in a well ventilated place, where the ground is level and with a trench, as close as possible to the working place, so as to reduce the losses caused by the copper busbar.
(3) the induction voltage regulator should be placed near the rectifier to reduce the loss of the conductor.
(4) button fan (4QA) at the departure rectification equipment charged.
(5) when starting the whole machine, the inductive voltage regulator shall be located to the minimum, so as to protect against excessive current and over-voltage.
(6) press the machine start button, contactor IJC pull in, at this time, the work instructions.
(7) all parts work properly, the whole machine can be put into operation.
(8) the alarm device is composed of an electric bell and an indicating lamp, an intermediate relay, when the rectifier equipment in operation, DC output occurs over-current, overvoltage or short circuit fault, the alarm device to generate action, light and sound signal.
First, the production of 8#~22# galvanized wire (Qian Si) product specifications, production processes
(1) galvanized iron wire No. 8 ~16, finished weighing 50 kg
8# (phi 4.00m/m) 10# (phi 3.50m/m) 12# (phi 2.80m/m)
14# (2.20m/m) 16# (phi 1.60m/m)
Production process: 6.50m/m diameter wire (grade Q195), dry drawing machine, LT-10/550 type water tank drawing machine, annealing, acid washing, water washing (two times), anti rust liquid, 508 type electric galvanized wire galvanized production line {Phi 560 type rotating vertical rack, wire straightening, hydrochloric acid washing, water washing to electroplate (with bath), cold water washing, hot water bath, drying, 508 horizontal winding machine, electric galvanized line line, weighing and packing, inspection and tying into the library.
(two) 18 ~22 galvanized iron wire, the finished product weight is 25 kilograms
18 (phi 1.20m/m) 20 (phi 0.90m/m) 22 (phi 0.70m/m)
Production process: 6.50m/m diameter wire (grade Q195, M8) - dry wire drawing machine, LT-10/550 type water tank drawing machine to Phi 2.50m/m, Phi 2.20m/m, annealing, LT-12/350 type water tank drawing machine on 280m/m diameter spool two, annealing, 356 electric galvanizing production line galvanized wire coil spool {horizontal discharge line frame line, hydrochloric acid washing, water washing, electroplating (with bath), cold water washing, hot water bath, drying, 356 horizontal winding machine, electric galvanized line line, checking, weighing and packing, and tying into the library.
Two, the production of 8#~22# galvanized wire (wire rod) equipment
(1) 8#~22# galvanized iron wire, 8/508 type and 12/356 type combination production line. (18#~22# can be used in the form of an I-shaped wheel or a vertical rotary wire release.)
1, the production of product specifications BWG8-22#, annual output of about 1600 tons, three classes production.
2, 8/508 and 12/356 type galvanizing line can not be produced at the same time.
Winding drum diameter 508m/m, Phi 356m/m speed and output table
  BWG
Specifications  
  m/m
8#
φ4.00
10#
φ3.50
12#
φ2.80
14#
φ2.20
16#
φ1.60
18#
φ1.20
20#
φ0.90
22#
φ0.70
Take-up type 8/508 type 12 revolutions per minute 12/356 type 32 revolutions per minute
Yield per day / ton 13 13 8.5 5 2.8 5.1 3 1.75








(2) 8#~16# galvanized iron wire, 8/508, 12/508, 14/508 and 16/508 production lines
Take-up drum diameter phi 508m/m (20 inch) speed and yield table

(3)18#~22# galvanized wire, 12/356, 24/356 and 36/356 production lines
Take-up drum diameter phi 356m/m (14 inch) speed and yield table
 
Specifications
18#
φ1.20m/m
20#
φ0.90m/m
22#
φ0.70m/m
Speed (Rev / min) 34 34 34
Wire speed (M / min) 38 38 38
Each reel (kg / class) 143 85 50
Model 12/356 (ton / day) 5.14 3.06 1.8
Model 24/356 (ton / day) 10.28 6.12 3.6
Model 36/356 (ton / day) 15.42 9.18 5.4
Note: the output is calculated at 90% theoretical weight.
Three. Comparison of new and old type equipment for galvanizing
(1) raw metal ingot size: 400 x 210 x 55m/m, 36 yuan per ton of zinc. Ensure that the galvanized iron wire surface gloss is good, zinc impurity is not exceeded is the key factor.
1, new equipment: Zn-01, Zn-1 code production zinc galvanized wire, keep the surface gloss.
2, the old equipment using code Zn-01 galvanized wire zinc ingot surface gloss gradually becomes poor.
3, with the amount of zinc per ton: the production of galvanized steel wire surface gloss is similar to that of new equipment compared with the old type of equipment can save metal raw materials of zinc 1/3.
Attachment: the chemical composition of zinc (GB470-64)
 
Code
Chemical composition(%)
Zn
impurity ≤
Pb Fe Cd

Cu

Cu
As Sb Sn The sum
Zn-01 99.995 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.0001       0.0050
Zn-1 99.99 0.005 0.003 0.002 0.001       0.010
Zn-2 99.96 0.015 0.010 0.010 0.001       0.040
Zn-3 99.90 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.002       0.10
Zn-4 99.50 0.3 0.03 0.07 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.002 0.5
Zn-5 98.70 1.0 0.07 0.2 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.002 1.3
(2)Conductive system
1, new equipment: anode bath titanium (titanium ingot placed above the row row), the price is 320 yuan / kg, not to change. Do not increase the plating liquid impurities, resistance coefficient of 42.1-47.8 10-6.Cm, to ensure the production of galvanized steel wire surface gloss; the leading power setting of 80 * 6m/m, 100 * 8m/m two specifications of the cathode copper; intermediate plastic groove double iron rolling copper tile, copper cathode iron wire with combination roll rotation, galvanized layer does not scratch.
2, the old equipment: the anode lead plating tank (lead zinc ingots, placed above) the price is about 16 yuan / kg, the production process gradually consumed (about 1 years to change the new lead, bath) caused by impurities gradually increased, the production of galvanized iron wire surface gloss is getting worse. The bath is not good due to impurities exceed the standard, zinc plating, plating solution can only be replaced, resulting in increased production costs, the resistance coefficient of 18.8.Cm 10-6. The lead is a harmful element will cause the amount of lead zinc coating products export unqualified; exceed the standard, the main electric aluminum, aluminum row easy oxidation, causing poor conductivity; the intermediate plastic tank, the cathode by wire positioning ring friction in copper, small contact area and cause wire galvanized layer abrasion.
(3)rectifier
The new equipment has three rectification, the DC quality is good, the capacity protection factor is high, and the performance of the voltage regulator is reliable, which can meet the process requirements completely.
(4) plastic groove part;
1, new equipment: polypropylene PP board, thick 15m/m, raw material price 16 yuan / kg, high strength, high temperature resistance, in line with export standards. Width, size, shape, 700m/m or 500m/m two, the cathode current density to meet the process requirements. Easy to control, adjust three degrees (concentration of B, e, acidity, pH value, temperature, temperature), the formula saves raw materials.
2, old type equipment: polyvinyl chloride PVC board, thick 12m/m, raw material price 6 yuan / kilogram, not high temperature resistant, easy to damage. The width of 900m/m or 1000m/m two, the cathode current density is difficult to meet the process requirements, three degrees difficult to control, waste of formula materials.
(5) pressing roller parts;
1, new equipment: wire pressing roller is made of porcelain gourd, high voltage electric porcelain factory custom, diameter 180m/m, wire in the plating bath. Ensure the depth, concentricity, high wear resistance, good surface finish, galvanized layer surface abrasion.
2 、 old type equipment: the roller is made of stone roller or hard plastic roller, the outer diameter is small, the concentricity is poor, the surface is rough, the surface of zinc coating is abrade, and the quality of the product is affected.
(6) hot water tank, oven
1 、 new type equipment: environmental protection type, all electric heating, temperature temperature controller, automatic control.
2, old type equipment: coal heating, operation inconvenient, black smoke pollution to the environment.
(7) the take-up part
1, new equipment: the winder head size per reel with automatic sliding device, the wire does not shrink silk, continuous filament, ensure normal production, protection of bath system equipment, to prevent accidents; the full closed to prevent wire reel to reel shaft, with machinery manufacturing standards; the chain wheel 2 inch 20 teeth 45# steel forgings, long service life; the offline measurement is convenient, can be converted into a car weighing form under the wire, weighing, a complete measurement. 8#~16# thick wire with electric wire machine, packaging can fasten, conforms to the GB/T343-94 standard, reduce the labor intensity of workers.
2, the old type equipment: 1. The take-up machine has no big head, which is the cause of the high oven. It is inconvenient to operate. No automatic sliding device, wire wire shrinkage, broken wire, plating wire stirring phenomenon, resulting in regular downtime, can not be normal production. It is not closed and does not conform to the standard of mechanical manufacture; the chain wheel chain is too small and the service life is short.
(8) new equipment, additional equipment
1, straightening device: to prevent wire in the plating bath disturb.
2, waste rack: often tucked the waste acid from the block; bath, saving production costs, reduce the residual amount of plating galvanized wire surface, a corresponding reduction in the cold water water quantity containing zinc, can reach the discharge standard.
3. Electric wire tying machine is specially used for 8#~16# galvanized iron wire binding.
(9) the production of 18#~22#, galvanized iron wire, the spool line form, automatic line is the most ideal, there is no floss and wire breaking phenomenon, to ensure the normal production and operation is very convenient.
The new equipment has competitive advantages, energy-saving emission reduction, high output, low cost, easy to operate high-quality galvanized equipment. The process formula of zinc plating brightener is fully applicable to the equipment. The galvanized iron wire has good glossiness, uniform zinc layer, strong adhesive force and long lasting corrosion resistance. The new zinc plating equipment reaches the export standard, with good quality and no wearing parts. Compared with the old type equipment, the service life of the new equipment is about 6 times, the cost of raw materials for manufacturing equipment is about 3 times, the operation staff can reduce by half, small profits but quick turnover, the price is about 2.5 times.
Four, environmental protection section
(1) zinc plating process is simple, non-toxic and stable
ZnSO4 - 7H2O 300~450g/L zinc sulfate
Boric acid, H3BO3, 20~30g/L
Sulfur, zinc and -30 brightener 14~18g/L
(2): wastewater treatment by using economic effective precipitation, water conservation in order not to affect the quality of the products as the premise, the wastewater treated water could be reused for production, recycling use of water, make water resource.
(3): according to the acid gas absorption and purification equipment or in hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid tank and BY-11 type fast mixing produces acid fog inhibitor, foam cover, acid mist inhibiting gas.
Five, to provide a competitive advantage of ancillary products
(1) LT-10/550 type water tank type wire drawing machine, motor 30kW, 6 pole single speed motor.
This equipment is the ideal equipment for drawing low carbon steel wire (raw material phi 6.50m/m wire rod, grade Q195, drawing to Phi 4.00m/m, Phi 3.50m/m by dry drawing machine), finished silk, Phi 2.20m/m, Phi 1.60m/m.
Drawing process:
1, Phi 6.50m/m - Phi 3.50m/m - Phi 1.60m/m: horizontal double drum wire drawing machine, type 560 1#, 2# one set or dry continuous drawing machine, 4/560 type one set. Phi 6.50m/m - Phi
 
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